Mania and hypomania are periods where a person feels elated, very active, and full of energy. Hypomania is a milder form of mania.
Mania and hypomania both involve periods when the individual feels excited or experiences an energized mood. They differ in how severe these mood changes are:
Mania is a severe episode that may last for a week or more. A person may feel uncontrollably elated and very high in energy. These symptoms interfere with daily life, and in severe cases, a person may need to go to the hospital.
Hypomania is an episode that lasts for a few days. People may feel very good and function well. Family or friends may notice mood or activity changes, while the person with the hypomania may not.
In research using patient medical records, investigators from Johns Hopkins and Sheppard Pratt Health System report that people with serious mental disorders who were hospitalized for mania were more likely to be on antibiotics to treat active infections than a group of people without a mental disorder.
Although the researchers caution that their study does not suggest cause and effect, they note that it does suggest that an infection, use of antibiotics or other factors that change the body’s natural collection of gut and other bacteria may individually or collectively contribute to behavioral changes in some people with mental disorders.
Their findings, published July 18 in Bipolar Disorders, add to evidence that the body’s immune system, the so-called gut brain axis, and the particular bacterial microbiome each person has play an integral part in the ebb and flow of psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.